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Disk Imaging Tools

Hardware imagers

Imaging Memory

At CanSec West 05, Michael Becher, Maximillian Dornseif, and Christian N. Klein discussed an exploit which uses DMA to read arbitrary memory locations of a firewire-enabled system. The paper lists more details. The exploit is run on an iPod running Linux. This can be used to grab screen contents.

In theory, this could be used with the ... to send through an exploit code that would cause the system to dump the contents of its hard drive back to the iPod.

Unix-based imagers

A program that converts and copies files, is one of the oldest Unix programs. I can copy data from any Unix "file" (including a raw partition) to any other Unix "file" (including a disk file or a raw partition). This is one of the oldest of the imaging tools, and produces raw image files. Extended into dcfldd.
A version of dd created by the Digital Computer Forensics Laboratory. dcfldd is an enhanced version of GNU dd with features useful for forensics and security, such as calculating MD5 or SHA-1 hashes on the fly and faster disk wiping.
A tool similar to dd, but unlike dd it will continue reading the next sector, if it stumbles over bad sectors it cannot read.
Another dd-like tool. It is supposed to be faster in certain situations.
Part of the AFF system, aimage can create either a raw file or an AFF file. It can optionally compress and calculate MD5 or SHA-1 hash residues while the data is being copied.
Specializes in Mac analysis, now a branch of the BSD family tree.

Windows-based imagers

X-Ways Forensics
Has some limited imaging capabilities. The output is raw format.
X-Ways Replica
Performs hard disk cloning and imaging. The output is raw format.
FTK can read forensic, uncompressed Ghost images.
FTK Imager by Access Data
Can image and convert many image formats. Including E0* and DD. Also a free tool.
Can image with out dongle plugged in. Only images to E0* file.
Can image and convert many file formats. Also builds mobile toolkit.
The IRS's forensic tool.
A complete set of tools for Windows (and handheld) products.
Images and searches FAT12, FAT16, FAT 32 and all NTFS files.
Their ultimate tool lets you "READ, ACQUIRE, DECRYPT, ANALYZE and REPORT (R.A.D.A.R.)."
A tool for imaging and analyzing disks.
Gargoyle investigator scans for illicit data and steganographic images.

Data Recovery Tools

Salvation Data
[1] Claims to have a program that can read the "bad blocks" of Maxtor drives with proprietary commands.
RAID Reconstructor
Runtime Software's RAID Reconstructor will reconstruct RAID Level 0 (Striping) and RAID Level 5 drives. People who have used it, love it.

Disk Analysis Tools

Linux-based Tools

SMART, by ASR Data

Windows-based Tools

EnCase, by Guidance Software
Forensic Tookit, by AccessData
ILook Investigator, by Elliot Spencer and IRS - Internal Revenue Service

Open Source Tools

A library for working with disk images. Currently AFFLIB supports raw, AFF, AFD, and EnCase file formats. Work to support segmented raw, iLook, and other formats is ongoing.
A LiveCD built on top of Knoppix.
FCCU Gnu/Linux Boot CD
Also a LiveCD built on top of Knoppix with a lot of tools with forensic purpose.
It leaves the target devices unaltered (It does not use the swap partitions found on the devices).
Tries to guess the primary partition table of a PC-type hard disk in case the primary partition table in sector 0 is damaged, incorrect or deleted.
Displays or modifies Exif data in JPEG files.

Anti-forensics Tools

Ontrack Data Eraser

See also Anti-forensic techniques and Database Encyrption.

Other Tools

VMware Player
A free player for VMware virtual machines that will allow them to "play" on either Windows or Linux-based systems.