Tools

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Disk Imaging Tools

Hardware imagers

Imaging Memory

At CanSec West 05, Michael Becher, Maximillian Dornseif, and Christian N. Klein discussed an exploit which uses DMA to read arbitrary memory locations of a firewire-enabled system. The paper lists more details. The exploit is run on an iPod running Linux. This can be used to grab screen contents.

In theory, this could be used with the ... to send through an exploit code that would cause the system to dump the contents of its hard drive back to the iPod.

Unix-based imagers

dd
A program that converts and copies files, is one of the oldest Unix programs. I can copy data from any Unix "file" (including a raw partition) to any other Unix "file" (including a disk file or a raw partition). This is one of the oldest of the imaging tools, and produces raw image files. Extended into dcfldd.
dcfldd
A version of dd created by the Digital Computer Forensics Laboratory. dcfldd is an enhanced version of GNU dd with features useful for forensics and security, such as calculating MD5 or SHA-1 hashes on the fly and faster disk wiping.
aimage
Part of the AFF system, aimage can create either a raw file or an AFF file. It can optionally compress and calculate MD5 or SHA-1 hash residues while the data is being copied.
Blackbag
Specializes in Mac analysis, now a branch of the BSD family tree.

Windows-based imagers

X-Ways Forensics
Has some limited imaging capabilities. The output is raw format.
X-Ways Replica
Performs hard disk cloning and imaging. The output is raw format.
Ghost
FTK can read forensic, uncompressed Ghost images.
FTK Imager by Access Data
Can image and convert many image formats. Including E0* and DD. Also a free tool.
EnCase
Can image with out dongle plugged in. Only images to E0* file.
DIBS
Can image and convert many file formats. Also builds mobile toolkit.
iLook
The IRS's forensic tool.
Paraben
A complete set of tools for Windows (and handheld) products.
ProDiscovery
Images and searches FAT12, FAT16, FAT 32 and all NTFS files.
AccessData
Their ultimate tool lets you "READ, ACQUIRE, DECRYPT, ANALYZE and REPORT (R.A.D.A.R.)."
ASR
A tool for imaging and analyzing disks.
Wetstone
Gargoyle investigator scans for illicit data and steganographic images.

Data Recovery Tools

Salvation Data
[1] Claims to have a program that can read the "bad blocks" of Maxtor drives with proprietary commands.
RAID Reconstructor
Runtime Software's RAID Reconstructor will reconstruct RAID Level 0 (Striping) and RAID Level 5 drives. People who have used it, love it.

Disk Analysis Tools

Linux-based Tools

SMART, by ASR Data
http://www.asrdata.com

Windows-based Tools

EnCase, by Guidance Software
http://www.guidancesoftware.com/
Forensic Tookit, by AccessData
http://www.accessdata.com/products/ftk/
ILook Investigator, by Elliot Spencer and IRS - Internal Revenue Service
http://www.ilook-forensics.org/

Open Source Tools

AFFLIB
A library for working with disk images. Currently AFFLIB supports raw, AFF, AFD, and EnCase file formats. Work to support segmented raw, iLook, and other formats is ongoing.
Autopsy
foremost
gfzip
magicrescue
pyflag
Scalpel
scrounge-ntfs
Sleuthkit
Zeitline
Helix
A LiveCD built on top of Knoppix.

Anti-forensics Tools

Ontrack Data Eraser

See also Anti-forensic techniques and Database Encyrption.

Other Tools

VMware Player
A free player for VMware virtual machines that will allow them to "play" on either Windows or Linux-based systems.
http://www.vmware.com/products/player/