Incident Response is a set of procedures for an investigator to examine a computer security incident. This process involves figuring out what was happened and preserving information related to those events. Because of the fluid nature of computer investigations, incident response is more of an art than a science.
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Starting in 2000, FRED
There are several books available that discuss incident response. For Windows, Windows Forensics and Incident Recovery by Harlan Carvey is an excellent introduction to possible scenarios and how to respond to them.